临床时讯 ＞ 临床研究
英国牛津大学约翰·拉德克利夫（John Radcliffe）医院的巴恩斯（N. P. Barnes）等报告，他们采用回顾性研究，对肺炎并发胸膜腔渗出（parapneumonic effusion）和脓胸等肺炎并发渗出病变的治疗方法进行了分析和评价。
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005 Feb;39(2):127-34.
Medical management of parapneumonic pleural disease.
Barnes NP, Hull J, Thomson AH.
Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
Considerable heterogeneity exists in the management of parapneumonic pleural disease. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated the effectiveness of small-catheter drainage with fibrinolysis, but surgical devotees suggest this may only be applicable to "early" cases. We examined evidence-based medical management in "all-comers." We performed a retrospective database analysis of the management of all children with complex pleural effusion admitted to the John Radcliffe Hospital over the 7-year period 1996-2003. One hundred and ten children were admitted. Ten were excluded as they were part of a multicenter RCT and had received intrapleural saline instead of urokinase. Of the remaining 100, 51 were female and 49 male. Median age on admission was 5.8 years (range, 0.3-16.5). Symptoms preadmission averaged 11 days, with December the most common month for presentation. Ninety-six underwent chest ultrasound, confirming an effusion in all, described as loculated/septated (68) or echogenic (11). In 17 cases, no specific comment was made regarding the nature of the fluid seen on ultrasound. Ninety-five had subsequent chest tube drainage and then received intrapleural fibrinolysis with urokinase. An etiological organism was identified in 21 cases (21%) (Streptococcus pneumoniae in 10, group A Streptococcus in 5, Staphylococcus aureus in 4, Haemophilus influenzae in 1, and coliform in 1). In a further 9 cases (9%), Gram-positive organisms were seen on pleural fluid microscopy, but did not grow on culture. Two (2%) required surgery due to the persistence of symptoms and an inadequate response to medical management. Median duration of admission was 7 days (range, 2-21 days); median duration of stay from intervention was 5 days (range, 2-19 days). At median follow-up of 8 weeks (range, 3-20 weeks), all children were symptom-free, with minimal pleural thickening on chest X-ray. In conclusion, antibiotic therapy with chest drain insertion and intrapleural urokinase is effective in treating complex parapneumonic effusion and is associated with a good long-term outcome.